Importance and Preservation of Coral Reefs
...Coral reefs form some of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. They occupy less than 1% of the worlds ocean surface, about half the area of France, yet they provide a home for 25% of all marine species, including fishes, molluscs, echinoderms and sponges. They are most commonly found at shallow depths in tropical waters, particularly in the Pacific Ocean. Coral reefs deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection. The annual global economic value of coral reefs has been estimated at $375 billion. It is believed to have emerged more than 540 million years ago. New species originate 50% faster in coral reefs than in any other habitats. The fossil records show that reefs have been remarkably successful in surviving through large environmental disturbances. However the combination of drastic environmental changes that we're seeing today, such as degraded water quality, depleted fish stocks, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and loss of habitat causes them to be under great threat. Coral reefs are perhaps one of the greatest but, least known of wonders of our world. There are three different kinds of coral reefs. There are fringing, barrier, and atoll. Fringing reefs are attached to margins of an island or continent, rough, table like surface, as much as 1 kilometer wide. On their seaward side they slope steeply to the ocean floor. Fringing reefs grow in shallow water near the shore and prefer dry climates with limited river runoff. There......
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Coral Reef Policy
...international policies to help protect coral reefs? Section 1: Coral Reefs are an important ecosystem that our planet needs to function correctly. Coral is a living organism that forms in colonies which can stretch out for hundreds of miles long and are then called coral reefs. These coral reefs are habitats for a large number of marine species. There are about 600,000 km of coral reef worldwide (State of the Reefs). Most reefs today are about 8,000 years old, and there are records of some being as much as 2.5 million years old (Dimitrov). The ecosystems of coral reefs have the “largest (amount) biodiversity per unit of area on earth” (Dimitrov). Scientists have discovered 93,000 coral reef species; however some estimate that there could be from 950,000 to as much as 9 million different species of coral reef (Dimitrov). Coral reefs are the second largest ecosystem next to tropical rainforests on Earth. The deterioration of coral reefs is a huge warning sign for everyone internationally to implement more policies on coral reef conservation. The problem that is happening internationally is the deterioration of coral reefs. Coral reefs are one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide. For the first time in history they will be included on the World Conservation Union’s red list of threatened species (Oliver). According to the United Nations Environment Program and the Nature Conservancy, “around 30 percent of the world's coral reefs are already damaged, some......
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Ecosystem of Coral Reef
... The Coral Reefs Ecosystem Hidden beneath the ocean water, is the coral reefs team of life. Fish, corals, lobsters, clams, sponges, seahorses, sea turtles are only a few of hundreds of thousands of creatures that rely on reefs for their survival. I think that coral reefs are beautiful and I find that ecosystem of a reef is fascinating. Despite the fact that Corals look like rock or plants they are definitely marine animals. Corals life begins in tropical water as floating larvae. After a short period of time the larvae attaches itself to a hard surface and becomes a polyp. Corals are related to the jellyfish some people say that a coral looks like a jelly fish upside down due to a coral having a lot of tiny polyps. A single coral polyp may be as large as a saucer or small as the top of a pinhead. There are billions of polyps working together in a cooperative colony. Generation after generation creating a limestone skeleton that forms the framework of the beautiful coral reefs. Coral Reefs grow very slowly. It could take up to a hundred years for a reef to grow 3ft. (Best&Bornbusch, 2001) Coral Reefs have been in existence for over 215 million years and located in tropical waters. The earths ocean floors cover more than 70% of our planet's surface and 97% of that water is found in the ocean. As everyone knows ocean water is salty and the reason being is due to the salinity in the water. The two ions found in seawater are chloride and sodium. The salt in the ocean's water...
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Coral Reef Bleaching
...The coral bleaching from different perspectives Introduction Coral reefs are highly productive ecosystem that also habitats for coastal animals and offer services to human communities (Kubicek, Muhando and Reuter 2012, p. 1). Coral reefs are places for many fishes and other living creatures in the sea to hide and live. Coral reefs also have a huge impact to human communities. Coral reefs and the beauty of living creatures that live within them have become major attraction for tourist and income for local communities. Unfortunately, human activities have caused coral reefs destroyed because of activities such as overfishing, diving, chemical pollution, reef mining and many other things (Carey 2000, p. 147). This activities lead to coral bleaching, which will become danger for many creatures that live in it. The Great Barrier Reef has lost half of its half coral reef in the last 27 years, and 10 per cent of the damage is caused by coral bleaching (De'ath 2012). Coral bleaching however impact many perspectives. From science perspective, coral bleaching has been a threat for many coral species and fishes that lives in it for they are becoming extinct and destroyed (Kubicek, Muhando and Reuter 2012, p. 1). This will leads to the less variety of the coastal ecosystem riches and incur social and economic loss to its social community. Coral bleaching also have impacts to the indigenous people. Indigenous people have used coral reef and its resources as dependence for their food......
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Coral Sea Proposal
...Essay Topic: Are the economic, social and environmental implications of the Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve Management Plan 2014 – 2024 on local communities and the fishing industry justifiable? Next year, on July 1, the world's largest marine reserve will come into effect. The Coral Sea Commonwealth Marine Reserve Management Plan 2014 -2024 is the culmination of more than a decade of campaigning by conservationists, consultation by the Federal Government and vehement opposition by industries and regional communities affected by the decision. On one hand, conservationists believe the nearly one million km² of ocean inside the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone will protect forever the pristine marine ecosystems of the Coral Sea - an iconic statement by the Australian government and its people that it's serious about marine conservation. However, the closure of some of Australia's richest fishing grounds will directly impact on commercial fishers and game charter operators, seafood distributors and wholesalers and other shore-based industries in regional ports such as Cairns. Many of these people claim the outcome has been achieved by the government based on emotive scaremongering campaign driven by a cashed-up environmental lobby without scientific basis. So, who is right? In a community where the local economy has become so reliant on the dominant tourism industry, isn't the marine park sending the right message to the rest of the world about its iconic natural......
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...Describe the conditions which provide the best environment for the growth of coral and explain how coral may be threatened by changes to those conditions. A coral reef provides one of the most important natural habitats in the world, sheltering enormous amounts of biodiversity with its solid calcium carbonate skeleton. More than 25 percent of all fish biodiversity on the planet Earth is associated with the coral reef ecosystem. Coral reefs require fairly specific environmental conditions in order to thrive. Coral reefs and the zooxanthellae algae living within the cell walls of coral polyps must have adequate sunlight and warm salt water - water that gets no colder than 64.4 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius).Optimal conditions for coral growth require water temperatures between 73.4 and 84.2 degrees Fahrenheit (23 to 29 degrees Celsius). Coral reefs survive best in the waters between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south of the equator, mostly in the Pacific and Indian oceans. They also thrive in clear waters with little or no floating particles that can filter out or block direct sunlight. Shallow-water coral grows approximately 3.9 inches (9.9 centimeters) per year, given these optimal conditions. For example, the coasts alongside Oman are an ideal place for coral growth. While tropical shallow-water coral reefs have been studied much more extensively, there are also species of coral that live in deep-water conditions, from about 50 to 2,000 meters (about......
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...July 13th 2014 Instuctor: Nicholas Kusina SCI 201-140-3A-06 Coral Reefs are located in tropical oceans near the equator. The largest coral reef is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia The second largest coral reef can be found off the coast of Belize. In Central America. Other reefs are found in other areas in tropical oceans. Corals can exist as individuals polpys, or in colonies and communities that contain hundreds to hundreds of thousands of polyps. For example, brain corals are some of the most recognizable coral species. These corals are colonies of many individual polyps, the individual polyps average 1-3mm in diameter. The physical structure of a coral reef is built by reef building polyps. When they secrete calcium carbonate skeletons, they create a complex three dimensional framework upon which an abundance of coral species and other marine plants and animals may live. About 25 % of all marine life is found in coral reefs, including around two million species of fish, crustaceans, sponges and seaweeds. Together these plants and animals form the coral reef ecosystem. As well as supporting marine biodiversity, reef ecosystems provide a number of ecological services and goods to human populations on a local, regional, and national level as they play an important role in coastline and habitat protection, nitrogen fixing, sand supply, climate records, fisheries, medicine, recreation and tourism. Coral reef frameworks can serve as physical buffers for ocean......
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Coral Drugs Case Study
...Twinney and G & I, because I want to make sure that G&I will have the ability to produce the same products that are required. In addition, G & I offers a larger sized container for all of their Coral Dandruff Shampoo products at a lower price than Twinney’s offer. I would recommend giving G & I a chance to manufacture half of the total requested units with their bulk packaging. What’s more, G & I offers next-day delivery service without minimum order quantities; and its manufacturing facility is located near Coral’s central warehouse, so it will be more efficient when emergency orders are needed. This will help make sure that the warehouse will not run out of the product at any given time. Also, we can minimize the inventory holding costs by adopting the G & I manufacturer because we can order whenever we need to. Since we trust Twinney’s quality, we can try to order more from them, and order less from new manufacturer, G & I. But in case we need to place an emergency order, we can order from G & I to get the products immediately because of the strategic location of their plant. In conclusion, I would recommend adding an additional manufacturer, G & I, instead of switching out old one, Twinney, which is a good manufacturer as well despite the shipping problems. This way, Coral Drugs can keep its reputation for long-term relationships with its private-label product suppliers while expanding their sources at the same time. 2. I agree with the way Shirley handled the......
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The Coral Triangle
...THE CORAL TRIANGLE by A. Wong Coral reefs are among the most productive of all the eco-systems. The intricate homes that coral animals build create magical underwater structures that attract a variety of sea life. Thousands of fish of many different varieties dart in and out of these elegant corals. A tropical coral reef underwater rivals the diversity of a tropical rain-forest on land. These reefs are a tremendous source of natural wonders and resources. The Philippines, Malaysia and New Guinea mark the corners of a triangle which is the cradle of evolution for the coral kingdom. More then 400 species of coral are in the reefs that encircle the 7000 plus islands of the Philippines. Its land area is only 1/5 of its water realm. Not all of these islands are inhabited. Those which can support human population are filled to overflowing. In these small islands there is usually no other way to make a living except through the surrounding reef. For the Philippines, with its problems in population and economy, fishing is very important. However, some fishermen resort to extreme measures such as Dynamite Fishing because it is quick and effective. Dynamite fishing is both illegal and rampant in the Philippines. The devastating effects of a single dynamite blast so a fisherman can feed his family with enough to spare to sell can cause damages to coral reefs that would take them 40 years to recover. The reefs are filled with a variety of sea life - exotic fishes with......
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...Las Colonias de coral, son genéticamente más diversas de lo que se estimaba Fecha: 10 de Junio del 2015 Los organismos coralinos son genéticamente más diversos de lo que se estimaba. Esta, es la conclusión propuesta por biólogos de la Ruhr-Universitat Bochum, que han llevado a cabo estudios de la variabilidad genética, en colonias individuales de distintas especies de corales. Maximilian Schweinsberg miembro de Department of Animal Ecology, Evolution and Biodiversity comenta, que de cualquier manera se debe esperar que esta variabilidad compense las pérdidas de corales debido al cambio climático. Schweinsberg menciona que la inestabilidad climática y los cambios en el ecosistema afectan en gran medida a las colonias coralinas. En colaboraciones junto a otros investigadores, se publicó este artículo en la revista Molecular Ecology. La base de esta adaptación es la diversidad genética. Estas colonias individuales, se conforman por millones de pólipos. Hasta la fecha, se ha asumido que los corales se originan a través de la proliferación de una larva y son, por tanto, genéticamente idénticos. En comunidades aisladas, los investigadores encontraron pólipos genéticamente diferentes. Sin embargo, es incierta la frecuencia en que ocurre este fenómeno. La variabilidad genética puede ser causada por dos procesos: mutaciones genéticas espontaneas en secciones de colonias individuales coralinas, o por distintas uniones de corales durante su etapa de desarrollo. En el primer......
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...State University and I possess a common vision. I, like State University, constantly work to explore the limits of nature by exceeding expectations. Long an amateur scientist, it was this drive that brought me to the University of Texas for its Student Science Training Program in 2013. Up to that point science had been my private past time, one I had yet to explore on anyone else’s terms. My time at UT, however, changed that. Participating for the first time in a full-length research experiment at that level, I felt more alive, more engaged, than I ever had before. Learning the complex dynamics between electromagnetic induction and optics in an attempt to solve one of the holy grails of physics, gravitational-waves, I could not have been more pleased. Thus vindicated, my desire to further formalize my love of science brings me to State University. Thanks to this experience, I know now better than ever that State University is my future, because through it I seek another, permanent, opportunity to follow my passion for science and engineering. In addition to just science, I am drawn to State University for other reasons. I strive to work with the diverse group of people that State University wholeheartedly accommodates – and who also share my mindset. They, like me, are there because State University respects the value of diversity. I know from personal experience that in order to achieve the trust, honesty, and success that State University values, new people are needed to......
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...------------------------------------------------- Coral drugs Case study10-2 Jing jiang CONESTOGA COLLEGE Jing jiang CONESTOGA COLLEGE Professer: Executive Summary To: Vice President of purchasing From: Shirley Black, Supervisor of purchasing Subject: Switch Coral Dandruff Shampoo to a small local company or keep doing it with a large compnay Issue: Shirley Black not so sure Coral Drugs should be switched its business from a large company to a small local company, but with flexible terms. Both company has its advantageous and disadvantageous. I have analyzed the work done thus and would like to propose the following as our new problem statement: “Coral Drugs must find the best suppliers for Coral Dandruff Shampoo product line; optimizing cost, product quality, delivery responsiveness, enhancing Coral Drugs’ leading private-label products status.” We considered below options to conclude in this proposal, as follows: *Switch business to G&I based on its low cost, flexible delivery service, and closer location to Coral. *Split the orders between G&I and Twinney incorporated. *Conduct RFQ process to find the best fit. *Keep doing business provide that Twinney can make improvement on delivery terms. We feel that split the order between G&I and Twinney is a better solution at current situation. It considers both cost and quality aspects......
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...Coral Reefs SCIN 136 Introduction to Oceanography, Week 7 Symbiosis is derived from “sym” which means together, and “biosis” which means to live. Coral is a terrific example of symbiosis, in that it requires another organism (the algae known as zooxanthellae) for survival and growth, and vice versa. I will discuss zooxanthellae, and how the symbiosis between it and coral is more efficient than coral relying solely on phytoplankton for as its main food resource. Almost all reef building coral require a very close symbiotic relationship with a certain type of algae known as “zooxanthellae” in order to thrive. These zooxanthellae inhabit the actual “flesh” of the coral, producing oxygen and also assisting in the waste removal process of the corals growth. In return, the coral protects the algae from the environment, and contributes various compounds required by the algae for photosynthesis. An interesting fact of this relationship is that zooxanthellae provides the coral with foods like glucose, glycerol and amino acids, which are created through photosynthesis. The coral uses these compounds to then produce proteins, fats and calcium carbonate to be used in its own growth process. This symbiotic relationship truly enables the efficient recycling of nutrients in rather nutrient poor tropical waters. Coral reefs react to their environment just like plants do, so they thrive in nutrient poor tropical water mainly because the waters there are relatively clear, and......
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Coral Reef Mitigation Plan
...Coral Reef Mitigation Plan XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX SCI/275 October 9, 2011 XXXXXXXXXXXXX Coral Reef Mitigation Plan A recent report estimates that 27% of the world's reefs are already gone and severely damaged and that another 58% are degraded and threatened. Here in the United States, in faraway places, and in the planet’s most secluded areas are experiencing coral reef crisis. Coral reefs survival are endangered from a controlling mixture of stresses which include global warming, bleaching, carbon dioxide, water pollution, sedimentation, coastal development, damaging fishing practices, coral mining, tourism, and ozone depletion. Threatening behavior from human activities, either direct or indirect, create considerable hazards to coral reef ecosystems, and the human populations that rely on them. Ocean warming caused from global warming and ozone depletion is severely hazardous to coral reefs. Coral organisms are extremely receptive to temperature changes. Water temperature increase may cause mass bleaching among coral reefs which causes coral polyps to expel zooxanthellae from the stress caused by ultraviolet radiation or heat. Zooxanthellae supplies reef corals with up to 80% of its energy, making zooxanthellae necessary for coral survival (Coral Reef Alliance, 2010). Zooxanthellae provide color for corals so when released corals become white or bleached. Coral have a chance to recover from bleaching effect only if normal conditions return promptly enough, but in......
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Cafe de Coral
...Café de Coral: Being Happy Together Across the Globe? 1. Introduction As Mr. Michael Chan, Chairman and CEO of the Café de Coral group, thought about the directions his company should take, he felt a bit uncertain. The company, clearly the most popular Chinese Quick Serve Restaurant (QSR) in Hong Kong and a local success, had just celebrated twenty years as a public company. This success and longevity in the cut-throat world of fast food was remarkable, but Mr. Chan did not want the company to rest on its laurels. At his meeting this afternoon with senior management, Mr. Chan planned to suggest that the company needed to move outside of Hong Kong and follow a much more aggressive plan than it had followed when it had moved slowly into China (with both Café de Coral outlets in neighboring Guangdong Province and recently New Asia Dabao in Shanghai) and also into North America (by buying into and then purchasing outright the Manchu Wok chain) over the last several years. He knew that the company needed a very clear globalization strategy in order to move to the next level of growth and to find sustainable growth opportunities away from Hong Kong. Mr. Chan had no clear plan at this point and he needed input from his managers and the Board. Mr. Chan reflected on how Café de Coral was a household name in Hong Kong and was the most popular QSR in its home market. The company dominated the market in Hong Kong and continuously improved its brand image through innovations in food......
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Coral Drugs, headquartered in New Delhi, India, is an integrated, research based international pharmaceutical company that produces a wide range of high quality, affordable, active drug ingredients.
With a team of dedicated scientists, Coral's R&D department provides efficient processes for off-patent products. Our goal is to maximize on the production of active ingredients by discovering new ways to manufacture without compromising quality.
Having clients all over the world, we assume a great level of corporate responsibility. Adhering to quality production standards across the globe, Coral Drugs takes pride in being a true international supplier of high quality pharmaceuticals.
By constantly evaluating new drugs for production, we demonstrate our ability to meet challenges in different sectors of the pharmaceutical industry.
As an independent API manufacturing company since 1993, Coral has made significant progress. Today we conduct research in a multiple range of products including antineoplastic, steroids, non-steroids, hormones and oral inhalation.
We encourage you to view our current product catalogues, and contact us to learn of upcoming developments. Information on this website will help you get a much deeper understanding of our diversification.